Although the tomb had been plundered in antiquity and most of the valuable jewels stolen, many objects were left behind.
This particular case of historical interest increases the potential utility of HTS techniques for forensic purposes by demonstrating that data from the more discriminatory nuclear genome can be recovered from the most damaged specimens, even in cases where mitochondrial DNA cannot be recovered with current PCR-based forensic technologies.
The CT scanning of the head revealed extensive bilateral post-mortem alterations of the facial bones .
The absence of these bones, together with the lack of comparative data on ancient Egyptian skulls, preclude definitive morphological sex determination; however, the presence of large mastoid processes, robust occipital and temporal regions, and pronounced gonial flaring of the mandible, suggest that the skull more likely belonged to a man , (Figure S1).
These approaches have served the forensic community well over the past twenty years.
They present limitations, however, to both the quality and quantity of genetic data that can be recovered from the most challenging specimens.