The fundamental principles of plate tectonics therefore require critical reexamination, revision, or rejection.Pratt goes on to challenge many of the basic tenets of the plate tectonic theory to include the most fundamental concept of plates sliding over the lubricating asthenosphere.Founded in 2002 by Nobel Laureate Carl Wieman, the Ph ET Interactive Simulations project at the University of Colorado Boulder creates free interactive math and science simulations.Ph ET sims are based on extensive education research and engage students through an intuitive, game-like environment where students learn through exploration and discovery. However, seismic tomography has actually provided strong evidence against the existence of convection currents that are large enough and strong enough to move continental plates.
It was hoped that seismic tomography would give clear evidence of such convection-cell patterns.
The hypotheses of large-scale continental movements, seafloor spreading and subduction, and the relative youth of the oceanic crust are contradicted by a substantial volume of data.
Evidence for significant amounts of submerged continental crust in the present-day oceans provides another major challenge to plate tectonics.
Based on this problem Pavlenkova concludes: "This means that the movement of lithospheric plates over long distances, as single rigid bodies, is hardly possible.
Moreover, if we take into account the absence of the asthenosphere as a single continuous zone, then this movement seems utterly impossible." She states that this is further confirmed by the strong evidence that regional geological features, too, are connected with deep (more than 400 km) inhomogeneities and that these connections remain stable during long periods of geologic time; considerable movement between the lithosphere and asthenosphere would detach near-surface structures from their deep mantle roots." The very process or "driving force" of plate movement is also coming under fire.